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Designing Research Questionnaires for Business and Management Students by Yuksel Ekinci, with series editors Bill Lee, Mark NK Saunders & VK Narayanan (Mastering Business Research Methods Series: Sage Publications Ltd)
Arts & Photography / Biographies / Cartoonists
The Art of Richard Thompson by David Apatoff, Nick Galifianakis, Mike Rhode, Chris Sparks & Bill Watterson (Andrews McMeel Universal, LLC)
Known for being the creator of
the comic strip Cul de Sac, Richard Thompson's art prowess extends to
many other levels. Little known to all but those close to him is the extent of
his art talent.
Readers explore the creative and compelling work of Thompson in the collectible The Art of Richard Thompson. Divided into six sections, each beginning with an introductory conversation between Thompson and one of six world-renowned cartoonists including Bill Watterson, Gene Weingarten, and Nick Galifianakis, the book showcases Thompson's exquisite illustrations, caricatures, watercolor designs, and his creation, Richard's Poor Almanack, providing an intimate portrait of the depth of talent of this esteemed artist. The diversity of the work showcased in The Art of Richard Thompson will delight established Cul de Sac fans and cast a wider net far beyond, with readers captivated by the sheer beauty of Thompson's work. Each section is highly illustrated, many works in color, most of them large and printed one to a page.
Renowned as an ‘artist's’ cartoonist, Thompson is noted not only for his humor and intelligence, but also for his fun, imaginative artwork. Thompson's illustrations, along with his pitch-perfect timing and gentle humor, have helped to establish many of Thompson's works as instant classics that continue to inspire as well as entertain.
Thompson is the winner of the 2011 Reuben Award for Outstanding Cartoonist of the Year. His illustrations have appeared in numerous publications, including U.S. News & World Report, National Geographic, and The New Yorker. In September 2012, Cul de Sac was one of the most popular and respected comic strips in newspapers when Thompson retired, due to his battle with Parkinson's disease.
Michelangelo with a sense of humor – Pat Oliphant, editorial cartoonist
… a holy experience that is humbling, hilarious, inspiring, crushing, and uplifting, all at once. – Carter Goodrich, illustrator and character designer
Richard Thompson must have a magical pen that he stole from a magical elf. I'm gonna beat the &@$% out of that elf until he gives me one, too. – Stephan Pastis, Pearls Before Swine creator
Beautiful, uniquely strong caricature from a humble master ... his caricatures are genius! – Philip Burke, illustrator
I had all but given up on comic strips when a friend turned me on to Cul de Sac. My faith in humanity restored, I now find comics are just one thing Richard Thompson does incredibly well. His drawings are beautiful done in an amazing array of styles and techniques. I’m torn between amazement and bitter jealousy. – Pete Docter, Director of Monsters, Inc.; Up; Inside Oat
Everything in a Richard Thompson drawing is funny – each line is put down with a caricaturist’s eye and a cartoonist's vigor. It's a rare and daunting thing to pull off; a sofa in a room is somehow drawn ‘funny’ the same way the person sitting on it is. And also the dog, the side table, the lamp, the vase of flowers, the teacup and the lettering – everything gets filtered through a visual sensibility that's grounded in exquisite draftsmanship and giddy comic exaggeration. It becomes a wholly realized world – and it's delightful. – John Cuneo, illustrator
The delightful absolute excellence of Richard Thompson's artwork and thinking
prove that consistency, in the right hands and mind, is the mark of genius. I
salute him. – Arnold Roth, cartoonist and illustrator
Had Richard Thompson and I lived in the same city, I think we would have become friends. Our approach to cartooning is similar. We both understand that comic art succeeds only when the drawings are light, not stiff or overworked. That offhand quality is very difficult to achieve in a comic strip where each character must look exactly alike in each panel, doing different actions. Thompson, like George Herriman, manages to give his strip drawings a spontaneous look in spite of the need for facsimile likenesses. I envy his ability to do it, and think of him as one of the best comic artists of his time. – Edward Sorel, illustrator and cartoonist
There are certain artists whose work stops me cold, and a Charlton Heston-like voice booms from the heavens, `This Is One.' Richard Thompson is indeed, 'One.' Invention, originality, joy of drawing, real humor, and a terrifying understanding of true caricature in all things, organic and otherwise, make him 'One.' Losing myself in his work is akin to walking into a magnificent cathedral that doubles as an amusement park funhouse. It's a holy experience that is humbling, hilarious, inspiring, crushing, and uplifting, all at once. – Carter Goodrich, illustrator and character designer
The Art of Richard Thompson is a book that enlightens and delights with the sheer beauty of his work. The diversity of work casts a wider net, well beyond Cul de Sac fans. Produced on fine art paper to showcase Thompson's unique art, The Art of Richard Thompson will be a welcome addition to libraries and collections everywhere.
Arts & Photography / Business
The Big Book of Glamour: 200 Secrets for Easier, Quicker and More Dynamic Photography by Richard Young (Amherst Media)
Model photography may seem like a glamorous job, but it is filled with an array of road bumps that can trip up even the most seasoned pro or savvy businessperson. If readers have ever wished they had a mentor to take along for the ride – someone who can help them navigate the pitfalls and rise to new artistic and financial heights – they have found their hero in Richard Young. Young’s one-size-fits-all book offers something for everyone.
The Big Book of Glamour is broken into eight sections – (1) models, (2) doing more with the camera, (3) Lighting, (4) Ideas, Themes, and Assignments, (5) Marketing and PR, (6) Art Tips, (7) Miscellaneous Tips, and (8) User-Submitted Ideas. The Big Book of Glamour is organized with ease-of-use in mind; there is no real start or finish. Readers can start right at page one and progress in a linear manner, flip to any page, or focus only on the topics that appeal to them most.
Some highlights include:
Young is a professional photographer based in Las Vegas, who specializes in fine-art, fashion, glamour, and portrait photography. His career has taken him around the country, working on assignment and teaching his methods to other aspiring professionals. After writing his first book, Young says he started getting some feedback and questions. From these inquiries, it became clear that a lot of people who want to learn photography are self-taught. While there are advantages and disadvantages to this style of education, it inspired him to create a collection of tips and ideas that he thinks will help all glamour photographers.
Young recognizes that the simplest tips or suggestions can sometimes save hours of headaches later. Just as it is in life, in photography it's often the little things that make the biggest differences. He thought it would be great to have these tips collected in one place for reference – and since he could never find what he wanted, he decided to put them all together on his own in The Big Book of Glamour.
Included are the tips and tricks he learned from years of working as a professional photographer in the studio, on location, and shooting at his home. Some tips are very basic; others are more professional.
Also, The Big Book of Glamour isn't for a ‘specific’ level of photography – beginning, intermediate, or advanced. Young stays away from too much technology stuff. This is a tip book, not a how-to book, it is designed to inspire and give insight.
Many of the images are ones he wouldn't submit for publication. He says that if he showed readers only perfect images, what would they learn? Many books contain only perfectly retouched images – pictures that are so perfect it can be hard to see what the author is talking about. In this book, he includes test shots, shots with bad lighting, and unretouched shots – because people have to see the problem before they can learn how to fix it. It is the only way he can show readers how to address the issues and eliminate the problems.
Praise for Create Erotic Photography by Richard Young
I would highly recommend this book to anyone who loves photographing nude images. – Joy Alan, professional photographer
This is a must-read book! – Billy Pegram, author of Posing Techniques for Photographing Model Portfolios
The book clearly shows that you don't need to spend a fortune to get pro results. – Lou Giacalone, Jr., co-founder of Diverxity, Inc.
The Big Book of Glamour provides expert tips to improve every facet of readers’ glamour photography; no topic is untouched. Young shares his most valuable secrets for every phase of professional glamour photography – from hiring models, to executing image concepts, to marketing and public relations. Whatever their skill level, readers should find ideas in this book to help them shoot more easily and with better results.
Audio / Literature & Fiction
The House on Mermaid Point Audio CD – Audiobook, MP3 Audio, Unabridged, 11.5 hours by Wendy Wax, narrated by Amy Rubinate (Ten Beach Road Series: Tantor Media)
Here is the latest installment in the Ten Beach Road series, a series which includes Ten Beach Road, Ocean Beach, Christmas at the Beach, and The House on Mermaid Point. Author Wendy Wax, a former broadcaster, is the author of several novels, including Magnolia Wednesdays, and Single in Suburbia. She is a RITA finalist as well as a recipient of the Virginia Romance Writers Holt Medallion Award. Narrator Amy Rubinate has narrated over 140 audiobooks and has won multiple AudioFile Earphones Awards.
Maddie, Avery, and Nikki first
got to know one another while desperately restoring a beachfront mansion to its
former grandeur in Ten Beach Road. Their latest project
The House on Mermaid Point has presented some challenges they couldn't
have dreamed up in their wildest fantasies – although the house does belong to a
man who actually was Maddie's wildest fantasy once.
Now they are back to renovate another broken-down home, this time in the Florida Keys. In The House on Mermaid Point, they find themselves intrigued and challenged by the new project.
William Hightower, a former rock star known as “William the
Wild” is a recovering alcoholic who is forced by his son to agree to this
renovation as there isn’t a penny left from all Will’s years of being a star.
"William the Wild" may be past his prime, estranged from his family, and
creatively blocked, but he's still worshiped by fans – which is why he guards
his privacy on his own island in the Florida Keys. He's not thrilled about
letting this crew turn his piece of paradise into a bed-and-breakfast for a
reality show. And William is not exactly the most endearing of characters, that
is, until he meets Maddie.
Maddie is newly divorced from Steve who lost his job and his pride. With her daughter Kyra and her grandson Dustin, they say their goodbyes to what was their home for years, uncertain about what the future will bring.
A lot more is going on in this group of female friends. Avery and her mother Deirdre are still at war with each other, payback for the years in which Deirdre ran off and left her daughter alone.
And Nicki, the former owner of a dating agency, bankrupted by a Ponzi scam, is also wondering how this latest venture will give her both security and some ideas for the future. She also is bound for a life-changing point of view.
All this occurs while they are doing back-breaking work recreating William’s home into something that will breed new life for many in future years.
But whether it's an unexpected flirtation with a bona fide rock star, a strained mother-daughter relationship, or a sudden tragedy, these women are in it together.
The House on Mermaid Point will be hungrily devoured by readers. – RT Book Reviews
Readers grow to love a group of talented and smart women in this must-read series. Add to that the glorious descriptions of magnificent flora, fauna, ocean views, houseboats, architecture and readers will relish The House on Mermaid Point as a sequel to Ten Beach Road but also as a stand-alone novel.
Business & Management / Research / Education
Designing Research Questionnaires for Business and Management Students by Yuksel Ekinci, with series editors Bill Lee, Mark NK Saunders & VK Narayanan (Mastering Business Research Methods Series: Sage Publications Ltd)
Designing Research Questionnaires for Business and Management Students is part of the new Mastering Business Research Methods series, conceived and edited by Bill Lee, Mark N. K. Saunders and Vadake K. Narayanan. The series is designed to support business and management students with their research-based dissertations by providing in-depth and practical guidance on using a chosen method of data collection or analysis. The books in this series follow a consistent format. Concise and accessible, they contain a range of features, including checklists and a glossary, designed to support self-guided research.
In Designing Research Questionnaires for Business and Management Students, Yuksel Ekinci guides readers through origins, types of questionnaires, basic components, types of questions and properties of measurement scales, how to design a questionnaire, sequence of questions, layout decisions and pilot testing, examples and strengths and limitations. Ekinci, an active researcher, is Professor of Marketing in the Henley Business School at the University of Reading. He teaches courses in research methods and global marketing management.
According to Ekinci in Designing Research Questionnaires for Business and Management Students, generally speaking, questionnaires are made up of two types of questions, depending on the type of response format and the degree of freedom given to respondents. These are known as open-response questions and closed-response questions. Closed-response questions are those in which respondents make choices from fixed alternatives introduced by the researcher.
Open-response questions are suitable when detailed information is required or where a listing of all possible answers would be lengthy. Open-response questions can be useful when respondents are given the freedom to respond however they wish.
Within the highly structured questionnaire, all if not the majority of questions are closed response. Such structured questionnaires are easy for respondents to complete themselves and are often self-administered. Therefore, answers to closed-response questions can immediately be coded and quantitative data is generated. In a less structured questionnaire, all, or the majority, contain open-response questions whereby respondents can record their answers verbatim. Hence, open-response questions are frequently used to collect qualitative data. The most popular administration method for open-response questions is in person. Open-response questions can also be self-administered online or by postal methods.
It is likely that the highly structured questionnaire will include a few open-response questions, thereby allowing respondents to answer in their own words. Open-response questions are used to gain an alternative view regarding customer satisfaction and to complement measurement data obtained via closed-response questions. Similarly, a questionnaire with many open-response questions may also include some closed-response questions. This questionnaire may also include some closed questions to register the age of the respondents or the type of organization they work for. Hence, closed-response questions are used to complement the main data generated from the open-response questions. Accordingly, they can be used to understand the demographic characteristics of the sample or the grouping of data according to different respondent characteristics in any subsequent analysis.
The questionnaire can also be classified according to administration methods. Mail, face to face, telephone and online are the most common administration methods used. The choice of questionnaire administration method depends on the research objectives, sample size, relative cost, question sensitivity, potential response rate, personal preferences and many other criteria that are specific to the particular research project.
Designing Research Questionnaires for Business and Management Students is organized in the following way. Chapter 2 considers the place of research philosophy and the choice of questionnaire. Chapter 3 explains exactly what is required when designing a questionnaire, so that students will be conversant with what the design involves. Chapter 4 – Parts I and II – introduces a process model to explain how to execute the four stages of questionnaire design:
Chapter 5 presents questionnaire examples that have been published and used within different management disciplines. The examples selected show a broad representation of different research designs and sampling methods, as well as illustrating how the questionnaires are used and results reported. Finally, Chapter 6 discusses the strengths and limitations of the questionnaires.
Reading Designing Research Questionnaires for Business and Management Students helps students with their dissertations. Clearly written, the book provides sufficient knowledge about designing research questionnaires for students when collecting their data. The standard format should help students find their way around the books in this series.
Cognition / Linguistics / Semantics / German
The Semantics of German Verb Prefixes by Robert B. Dewell, with series editors Kalus-Uwe Panther and Linda L. Thornburg (Human Cognitive Processing Series, Vol. 49: John Benjamins Publishing Company)
The Semantics of German Verb Prefixes is the most comprehensive study ever undertaken in this area of German grammar. Using an extensive collection of naturally occurring data, author Robert B. Dewell, Loyola University, New Orleans, proposes an image-schematic interpretation for the productive prefixes be-, ver-, er-, ent-, zer-, um-, über-, unter-, and durch-. These abstract semantic patterns underlie a remarkable range of particular meanings, and they consistently account for subtle contrasts between prefixed verbs and alternative constructions such as simple verbs, particle verbs, and verbs with other prefixes. Dewell develops a schematic meaning for the prefixed verb construction itself. This grammatical meaning reflects the interpreter’s perspective and attentional focus as the objective event is imagined to unfold. Underlying all of these proposals is a novel conception of meaning as a dynamic and flexible process with a constantly active role for the interpreter.
According to Dewell in the introduction to The Semantics of German Verb Prefixes, the core group of pure inseparable verb prefixes in German includes be-, ver-, er-, ent-, and zer-. Über-, um-, unter-, and durch- can also be used as prefixes, in addition to their uses as prepositions and as separable particles. As the example below reflects, verb prefixes play a pervasive role in the German language.
Als minderwertig erklärt, entmenschlicht, verfolgt, enteignet, der osterreichischen Staatsbürgerschaft beraubt und vertrieben.
`Declared [er-clarified] inferior, dehumanized [ent-humanized], persecuted [ver-followed], dispossessed [ent-owned], (be-)robbed of Austrian citizenship and exiled [ver-driven]'
One of the most enticing – and frustrating – topics in German linguistics is the question of what these prefixes mean. On the one hand, speakers of German feel that the prefixes do have characteristic meanings. The ent- of entmenschlichen and enteignen for example conveys a definite sense of depriving. On the other hand, the prefixes occur in a bewildering array of seemingly unrelated verbs, and whatever meaning they do contribute often seems abstract and elusive. Ver- changes the meaning of folgen and treiben, but it is not at all clear exactly what meaning ver- contributes. As for the er- of erklaren, the whole verb seems lexicalized as a separate vocabulary item and that er- does not contribute any specifiable meaning that is distinct from that of the base verb klaren. Yet the er- of erklaren does seem tantalizingly similar to the er- of many other verbs (e.g. erweichen, erfrischen, erwecken), and in those verbs it does seem to add meaning – albeit a vague meaning that is difficult to specify. As for the be- of berauben, it can seem to have a purely grammatical effect rather than a semantic one. Even in the case of be-, however, there is a nagging feeling that there are consistent patterns at work that somehow affect the meaning of the sentence in a way that goes beyond purely grammatical form.
The basic premise of The Semantics of German Verb Prefixes is that the German verb prefixes do contribute consistent identifiable meanings in nearly all of their particular uses, and that linguistics could do a much better job of articulating what those meanings are.
According to Dewell, generally speaking, the relatively less common prefixes are easier to specify semantically. Zer- for example can usually be understood in terms of an English gloss like `to pieces'. Über-, unter-, um-, and durch- seem to have the same basic meaning as prefixes that they do as separable particles or as prepositions – i.e., roughly `over', `under', `around', and `through'. Ent- has two common uses that seem clearly related to each other. It can describe depriving an accusative object of something, in which case ent- is the `privative' counterpart to `applicative' be- (compare entwaffnen with bewaffnen). Ent- verbs can also describe escaping the reach of something, in which case there is still an element of separating one thing from another.
This brief survey – supplemented by long lists of lexicalized compound verbs to be learned as separate vocabulary items – summarizes the current state of knowledge about the meaning of German prefixes. It is not very satisfying. It is of limited help to learners of German, who correctly sense that acquiring a "feel" for how to use these prefixes is a very important part of learning the language. The received accounts are also of little help to native speakers who want to understand these prefixes in a more conscious way, so that they can become more effective speakers and writers. Surprisingly few studies even address the question of what verb prefixes mean in any serious way – largely because the accepted methods for studying meaning do not lend themselves very well to highly abstract constructions such as verb prefixes.
According to Dewell in The Semantics of German Verb Prefixes, linguists need to develop some new ways of thinking about meaning – ways that are more appropriate to higher-level grammatical constructions such as prefixed verbs. Most ordinary people, and most linguists for that matter, think of meaning in terms of objective information – the kind of meaning that either is or is not appropriate to describe a given state of affairs. That kind of objective information is certainly the most obvious part of the meaning of these expressions.
But objective information is not all there is to meaning. An objective scene described by `His hand is around the ball' might also legitimately be described as `The ball is in his hand' – but the two sentences clearly do not mean the same thing. `His hand is around the ball' singles out the hand for focal attention. It is construed to be the figure of the relation, while the ball is construed to be the ground or landmark in the relation. `The ball is in his hand' on the other hand makes the ball the relatively prominent figure and reduces the hand to landmark status. Such construal relations do not necessarily alter the objective scene being described, but they definitely do change the interpretation of that scene. And they become especially important as soon as we begin to talk about grammatical relations as opposed to individual words.
Figure-ground relations are now commonly acknowledged as an important part of the semantics of languages, but they are not the only subjective construal relations that we need to look at if we are going to understand the semantics of verb prefixes. In particular, Chapter 1 introduces a fundamental distinction between a sequential construal pattern that is linked to unprefixed verb constructions and a synoptic one that is linked to prefixed verb constructions. These two patterns do not depend on objective information; they involve things like what perspective we adopt as we imagine the scene being described, and how we are prompted to distribute our focal attention as the event unfolds.
Subjective construal relations are more difficult to identify than objective information, but they are no less rea1. Generally speaking, they become crucial to the interpretation as soon as grammatical constructions are involved, relating different aspects of the same scene or event. Where lower-level "content words" like Hund or laufen or um primarily provide objective information, grammatical constructions serve to organize the construal of that objective information, prompting us to distribute our attention over the complex scene in specified ways. Verb prefixes are at the cusp between these two types of meaning. The individual prefixes convey objective information (albeit very abstract information), but they always occur as part of a grammatical construction whose meaning can only be understood in terms of construal. The meaning of verb prefixes cannot be understood adequately ignoring the construal relations that always accompany them.
Meanings are active mental processes, not static things. They are what the brain does when it interprets a language expression. Meanings are like streams that flow into each other, as opposed to things that can be assembled like the ingredients in a salad. That is how a core schematic pattern for prefixes like er- or ver- might plausibly underlie the amazing variety of specific uses that the prefixes can have.
Chapter 1 begins with a summary of what was learned about um-, durch-, über-, and unter-. Chapter 1 thus serves as an introduction to the key concepts and methods that are needed to understand the subsequent chapters. It focuses on the general role played by a dynamic subjective perspective in interpreting the meaning of a sentence, and particularly on the crucial characteristics of a synoptic construal in contrast to a sequential one. Chapter 1 also introduces several other important notions, such as the nature of schematic images and the various specific types of accusative object.
Armed with the insights gained from looking at um-, über-, unter-, and durch-, Chapters 2-6 provide detailed examinations of be-, ent-, er-, zer-, and ver-. For each prefix Dewell proposes a core schematic meaning that can be taken to underlie the broad range of specific verbs with that prefix. Each chapter looks especially at situations when the prefixed verb construction contrasts directly with alternative constructions using simple verbs or particle verbs. That way readers can begin to isolate the precise semantic contribution of the prefixed verb construction in contrast to the alternatives offered by the language. Finally, in Chapter 7 the prefixes are contrasted with each other, providing an overview of the basic system of German verb prefixes. The Semantics of German Verb Prefixes closes with some general theoretical implications.
Much of the book consists of detailed descriptive contrasts between prefixed verb constructions and alternative constructions. That level of detail is warranted for several reasons. For one thing, the proposed meanings for the individual prefixes and for the prefixed verb construction itself are patterns abstracted from a wealth of particular occurrences, and the only way to justify them is to ground them thoroughly in empirical evidence. It is also important to represent all of the available evidence, not just selected instances that fit neatly into the story that the author wants to tell. Another reason to include a considerable amount of descriptive detail is that readers need to immerse themselves in the data if they are to gain a full understanding of the abstract patterns and processes that purport to describe it. Besides that of course, many readers will find the descriptive details about the meaning of particular German verbs intrinsically interesting and useful.
Dewell has taken pains to use only naturally occurring sentences as evidence (as opposed to sentences constructed as examples by dictionaries or linguists or himself). The examples in The Semantics of German Verb Prefixes were taken either from the Internet or from the COSMAS database of written German administered by the Institut für deutsche Sprache.
Extensive, comprehensive, The Semantics of German Verb Prefixes will be of great value to cognitive linguists as well as scholars and students of German who want to gain insights into a central and puzzling part of the morphosyntax and semantics of the German language.
Education / K-12 / Great Britain
Teaching Languages in the Primary School, 2nd edition by Philip Hood & Kristina Tobutt (Sage Publications, Ltd.)
Languages are now a more important part of primary
education than ever before, and all successful primary teachers need to
understand the principles that support good language teaching and learning.
This second edition of Teaching Languages in the Primary School provides a coherent overview of teaching and learning languages, combining practical strategies for use in the classroom with engaging coverage of how to teach, informed by academic research and theory. The authors are Philip Hood, Course Director of the National SCITT Primary PGCE and Lecturer in Modern Languages Education at the University of Nottingham, and Kristina Tobutt, a Primary Teacher and Associate Consultant for Nottinghamshire LA.
Key features of this new edition include:
Teaching Languages in the Primary School is important for all students studying primary languages in initial teacher education courses, including undergraduate and postgraduate. This book is written for a range of audiences. It has been fully updated to take into account all of the changes introduced by the coalition government of 2010-2015, including the new National Curriculum. Hood and Tobutt offer a full introduction to the planning, teaching and assessment of modern language (ML), teaching in the primary sector. In addition, they open up the wider theme of how languages can play a full part in the whole curriculum. The book is written for teachers in training and not just for those who are specializing in ML. An understanding of how to teach a language effectively will increasingly be part of a competent primary teacher's repertoire as, from 2014, the subject finally becomes part of the new National Curriculum in England.
Teaching Languages in the Primary School will be used by teacher-educators as a support for their sessions with ML specialists and as a way of showing that ML shares many attributes with other subjects and can contribute to children's broader language development. In the new school-based Initial Teacher Education (ITE) courses there may be more need for independent study materials and the book should work as a coherent package for such beginner teachers. Hood and Tobutt have also linked theory to practice and have provided authentic examples of different approaches. In addition, the more theoretical Chapter 9 draws together material about communicative teaching, task-based learning and content and language integrated learning (CLIL) written with primary languages in mind.
Teaching Languages in the Primary School is also intended for experienced teachers who have an ML teaching or coordination role and want to enter into a dialogue about approaches, materials and objectives. This includes experienced primary teachers who know how to teach primary age children but who are perhaps less confident with language teaching approaches. It also includes secondary teachers with an outreach role who realize that secondary methodology does not transfer particularly well to primary schools.
To make Teaching Languages in the Primary School user-friendly throughout, it offers a range of different resources to a range of different audiences.
Those seeking an introduction to the background to teaching languages at primary level from both a policy and a child-centered perspective should start with Chapter 1. Those seeking a practical but also a global, more philosophical overview of what language learning can offer their school should look at Chapter 2. Those wishing to gain an overview of how language learning might look in the Early Years Foundation Stage should look at Chapter 3. Chapter 4 looks specifically at how readers might launch language learning in a school, and considers Year 1 and Year 3 starting points. Chapters 5 and 6 follow logically from that, dealing with progression in different ways.
If readers have come to the book specifically to consider the role of the new National Curriculum in Britain and its implications for planning for progression, then Chapter 7 deals with those issues. If their focus is on how to assess language learning and how to structure coherent transition to KS3, then Chapter 8 has been updated to address this. If they are interested in the theory that underpins communicative, task-and content-based, cross-curricular approaches, such as content and language integrated learning (CLIL), then they should turn to Chapter 9.
To serve various aims and purposes, Hood and Tobutt in Teaching Languages in the Primary School have included a range of features to increase its interactivity and set up the dialogue.
This very accessible text weaves theory and practice together well, offering readers opportunities to reflect on important key issues related to teaching and learning languages in the primary school context. It provides very useful guidance for students with only emerging knowledge and confidence in this area of the curriculum as well as offering chapters for more experienced practitioners. – Marnie Seymour, Senior Lecturer, University of Winchester
This second edition of Teaching Languages in the Primary School provides a coherent overview of teaching and learning languages, combining practical strategies for use in the classroom with engaging coverage of how to teach, informed by academic research and theory. This is essential reading for both students in undergraduate and postgraduate programs studying to be teachers in the British educational system.
Education / Law & Legislation / Public Policy / Social Justice
The Pursuit of Racial and Ethnic Equality in American Public Schools: Mendez, Brown, and Beyond edited by Kristi L. Bowman, with a foreword by James E. Ryan (Michigan State University Press)
In 1954 the Supreme Court decided Brown v. Board of Education; ten years later, Congress enacted the Civil Rights Act. These monumental changes in American law dramatically expanded educational opportunities for racial and ethnic minority children across the country. They also changed the experiences of white children, who have learned in increasingly diverse classrooms.
The Pursuit of Racial and Ethnic Equality in American Public Schools is edited by Kristi L. Bowman, Professor of Law at Michigan State University’s College of Law and a faculty associate at the MSU College of Education’s Education Policy Center. The authors of this commemorative volume include leading scholars in law, education, and public policy, as well as important historical figures.
Taken together, the 24 chapters trace the narrative arc of school desegregation in the United States, beginning in California in the 1940s, continuing through Brown v. Board, the Civil Rights Act, and three important Supreme Court decisions about school desegregation and voluntary integration in 1974, 1995, and 2007. The authors also assess the status of racial and ethnic equality in education today and consider the viability of future legal and policy reform in pursuit of the goals of Brown.
In some ways it is obvious that The Pursuit of Racial and Ethnic Equality in American Public Schools is part of a discussion that began long ago and that will continue many years in the future – that is the nature of the pursuit of equality, educational or otherwise. But this volume is also part of larger conversations about the significance of law, the importance of education, and the potential to reform educational institutions through law.
The Pursuit of Racial and Ethnic Equality in American Public Schools begins at a point in time and in a place where school desegregation started to gain momentum, in the early 1940s in California. When the Mendezes sought to enroll their children in the local schools, they were told that their children could not attend Westminster Main Elementary – they should instead attend the ‘Mexican’ school in town. Eventually, the Mendez family and others sued school districts engaged in this practice and in 1946 won a judgment against the districts in Mendez v. Westminster. This was the first school desegregation victory for plaintiffs in federal court. Although the precedent created by the decision was binding only in one area of California, the decision was used by many across the state to dismantle the system of separate schools for children of Mexican heritage. In chapter 1, Judge Frederick Aguirre recounts his own family's history of immigration and segregation and also discusses how his father used the Mendez decision to integrate the local schools shortly before Aguirre began kindergarten. In chapter 2, political scientist Philippa Strum draws together historical research and extensive interviews with members of the Mendez family and others to tell the story of Mendez in detail. In chapter 3, editor Bowman discusses the complicated relationship Latinos and Latinas have had with school desegregation from the Mendez litigation through the present day and also examines how that relationship has intersected with both immigration law and English-language instruction rights.
In addition to setting into motion the events that would result in Mendez, the World War II era influenced the course of school desegregation in many other ways as well. For example: the Supreme Court became increasingly protective of civil rights and started to question Plessy v. Ferguson's ‘separate but equal’ definition of equality, African Americans, especially veterans returning from overseas, began to register to vote and to exercise the franchise in significant numbers, though often in the face of great resistance and violence, and the Supreme Court struck down restrictive housing covenants and invalidated segregation in higher education. Yet, across the country, laws still sanctioned and in some states still required children to be educated separately based on their race.
When the 1950s began, so too did the protests and lawsuits that would eventually lead to the Court's unanimous decision in 1954: Brown v. Board of Education. Through the Brown decision, the Supreme Court changed the definition of equality, overturning Plessy in the context of public schooling. Much has been said about Brown and The Pursuit of Racial and Ethnic Equality in American Public Schools captures that discussion and adds to it. In chapter 4, Brown Foundation founding president Cheryl Brown Henderson remembers the Topeka NAACP's crucial role in the litigation and discusses her family's experiences as the lead plaintiffs in the case. In chapter 5, law professor and former NAACP General Counsel Jack Greenberg, who was one of the attorneys in Brown, reflects on Brown after the passage of many decades and concludes that Brown's most important legacy is to have shifted culture by displacing the norm of state-sanctioned segregation. This culture shift did not happen quickly, though, and in chapter 6, education professor Patricia Edwards tells readers what the implementation of Brown was like by recounting her understandably formative experience as one of the second group of African American children to integrate a formerly all-white high school in Albany, Georgia. In chapter 7, law professor Wendy Parker asks whether school desegregation became easier to realize over time, walking readers through the litigation in the four school districts whose school desegregation lawsuits were consolidated into Brown and litigation in the Middle District of Alabama, concluding that although social resistance eventually retreated, the isolation of the judiciary has remained a substantial obstacle to desegregation.
As some of those chapters note, the reaction to Brown and to school integration across much of the American South was often intensely hostile and sometimes also violent. The integration of Little Rock Central High School in 1957 exemplifies Massive Resistance, and in chapter 8, former FBI agent John ("Jack") Feeheley recounts his experience as an undercover agent on the scene of the weeks-long integration standoff in Little Rock.
Ten years after the Court decided Brown, the federal Civil Rights Act cleared the way for the federal government to enforce that decision by allowing the attorney general of the United States to become a plaintiff in a school desegregation case, and by prohibiting racial discrimination in schools that receive federal funds – including not only intentional discrimination, but also government action that has a disparate impact on students. In chapter 9, Allison Brown, a program officer at Open Society Foundations and former Department of Justice attorney, writes about the contemporary use of Title VI to challenge racial and ethnic disparities in school discipline and proposes ways to reclaim the power of the Act. In chapter 10, law professor Derek Black analyzes the Court's 2002 decision in Alexander v. Sandoval, which significantly limited the power of Title VI, and offers three nuanced and much-needed proposals to restore Title VI to its original strength.
In the second section of The Pursuit of Racial and Ethnic Equality in American Public Schools, readers see that the Court stepped back from that promise as school desegregation took hold in the North and the contours of appropriate remedies played out in litigation involving Detroit and Kansas City, and as the voluntary integration policies adopted in Seattle, Washington, and Louisville, Kentucky, were overturned by the Court.
In 1974, by the time the Court decided Milliken v. Bradley, it had recognized that intentional segregation could happen even in the absence of statutes requiring or permitting it, which had been prevalent across the South. In chapter 11, retired Judge Nathaniel Jones, who was the NAACP General Counsel at the time of Milliken, provides a window into the NAACP's legal strategy in the case, discussion of the trial, and somber reflections on the Court's decision. In chapter 12, political science professor Joyce Baugh discusses the many dynamics which produced metropolitan areas dominated by residential segregation, and analyzes the residential and school segregation that came to dominate Detroit by the early 1970s and set the stage for the Milliken litigation. Milliken's impact should not be underestimated: in chapter 13, public policy professor Charles Clotfelter shows that most racial and ethnic isolation in schools today is across district lines, not within districts, and specifically examines school districts in North Carolina.
The Supreme Court issued three decisions in the Kansas City desegregation litigation, Missouri v. Jenkins, the last of which was in 1995. Because the district court could not mandate cross-district integration after Milliken, it tried to incentivize white students from surrounding suburban school districts to enroll in the primarily black Kansas City schools by creating exceptional and unique programs. In 1995, the Supreme Court rejected this approach, which it termed ‘desegregative attractiveness.’ In chapter 14, the attorney who argued for the state of Missouri before the Supreme Court, John Munich, shares a first-hand perspective about developing the state's strategy in briefs and for oral argument, and summarizes the state's success in Jenkins. In chapter 15, sociologist Kevin Fox Gotham provides context for understanding Jenkins by presenting a detailed history of school and housing segregation in Kansas City. In chapter 16, Bowman analyzes the legacy of Jenkins as seen through over 100 education rights judicial decisions issued since 1995.
Soon after the turn of the millennium, the Court issued decisions that were increasingly skeptical of affirmative action in higher education and race-conscious decision making in higher education admissions. Eventually, the Court agreed to review two cases in which school districts employed voluntary (not court-ordered) student assignment plans that contained race- and ethnicity-conscious measures. These cases, Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1 from Seattle, Washington, and Meredith v. Jefferson County Board of Education from Louisville, Kentucky, were consolidated for argument and decided as one.
In what has become known as the Parents Involved decision, the Court held that school districts could seek to create or maintain racial and ethnic diversity in their schools, but that they could not use means that consider individual students' race and ethnicity to do so. In chapter 17, Byron Leet, the trial attorney who represented Jefferson County, provides insight into the social and legal context for the Meredith case, including the community's perhaps unexpected reaction to the Parents Involved decision. In chapter 18, law professor and dean Erwin Chemerinsky provides an overview of the Parents Involved decision and critiques its effect in curtailing voluntary integration policies. In chapter 19, education professor Michael Dumas argues that although the Parents Involved plurality claims to employ a colorblind approach, in reality it reproduces systematic white advantage in school assignment. Like many other authors in The Pursuit of Racial and Ethnic Equality in American Public Schools, Dumas also explores the connections between housing and school segregation.
The five chapters in the third and final section each help readers to consider different aspects of the hard work that is required to live up to the ideals of Mendez, Brown, and the Civil Rights Act. In chapter 20, law professor and dean Danielle Holley-Walker analyzes Southern school districts' response to Parents Involved, identifying four types of voluntary integration plans used by those districts. She also provides a range of policy suggestions to help school districts create or maintain greater diversity in their schools. In chapter 21, education professors Erica Frankenberg and Sarah Diem examine the importance of school boards in enacting voluntary integration and other equity-focused policies through a nuanced study of the school district in Louisville, Kentucky, that gave rise to the Meredith litigation. In chapter 22, MALDEF regional counsel David Hinojosa and attorney Karolina Walters explain the track record of school finance litigation in terms of creating greater educational opportunities for students of color, and identify ways to work around three common roadblocks so that school finance litigation is better able to help us live up to the promise of Brown. In chapter 23, education professor Benjamin Superfine and post-doctoral researcher Jessica Gottlieb critically analyze two aspects of education reform sweeping statehouses across the country – teacher evaluation and collective bargaining reforms – and examine the potential of those reforms to advance the goals of Brown and the Civil Rights Act. Finally, in chapter 24, the capstone of The Pursuit of Racial and Ethnic Equality in American Public Schools, education professor and cofounder and codirector of the Civil Rights Project/Proyecto Derechos Civiles Gary Orfield synthesizes the desegregation efforts of the past sixty years, extracting lessons to help us move forward.
In this important new collection, 26 authors reflect on the racial and ethnic discrimination that infects our public schools, some sharing their own powerful stories. Their moving first-person narratives are interwoven with commentary by some of the nation’s most prominent scholars. Many books have been written about school inequality, and this volume is among the best. It is a must-read for anyone who genuinely cares about the racial and ethnic disparities that continue to plague our public schools. – Morris Dees, Founder and Chief Trial Attorney, Southern Poverty Law Center
As the nation reflects on the state of its schools 60 years after the Brown decision and 50 years after the Civil Rights Act, this timely and important book will serve as a poignant reminder of the limits of the law in securing civil rights in education and why the pursuit of equity, integration, and social justice in education are goals that we must not forsake. Despite public education’s many flaws, it continues to be America’s most democratic and accessible institution. This book illuminates why race and racial inequality continue to determine the kind of education our children receive and what it might take to transform schools so that they truly embody and advance our democratic ideals. – Pedro A. Noguera, Peter L. Agnew Professor of Education, New York University, and Executive Director, Metropolitan Center for Research on Equity and the Transformation of Schools
The Pursuit of Racial and Ethnic Equality in American Public Schools focuses on the landmark Brown decision, the federal Civil Rights Act, and the subsequent decades of struggle for equality of opportunity. Several significant themes emerge from this extraordinary, cross-disciplinary book: the contributors largely lament the rejection of metropolitan desegregation remedies, insightfully analyze the lowering of the bar to achieve unitary status, and impress upon us the significance of most voluntary desegregation plans being invalidated. The authors engage many challenging legal and policy issues, and a particular strength of the book is its emphasis on the contemporary conundrum of meeting the needs of students in majority-minority urban centers. – Mark G. Yudof, President Emeritus and Professor of Law, University of California
… The book’s exceptional contributors trace that significant and complex history, which includes not only African American but also Latino plaintiffs, and which involves courts as well as the U.S. Departments of Education and Justice. They then look to the future, carefully evaluating creative litigation and policymaking possibilities. Lawyers, educators, and policymakers all have much to learn from this remarkable book. – Charlie Rose, former General Counsel, U.S. Department of Education
Bringing both people and litigation to life, The Pursuit of Racial and Ethnic Equality in American Public Schools is a remarkable collection of voices in conversation with one another laying the groundwork for future discussions about the relationship between law and educational equality, and ultimately for the creation of new public policy. A valuable reference for scholars and students alike, this dynamic text is an important contribution to the literature by an outstanding group of authors.
Entertainment & Sports / Basketball / Religion / Motivation
Beyond Championships: A Playbook for Winning at Life by Dru Joyce II, with Chris Morrow, with a foreword by LeBron James (Zondervan)
There are a lot of principles in this book that have become cornerstones of my own philosophy on life. But the principle that has probably impacted me the most is to always have the heart of a servant. That's something I learned from Coach Dru, and in many ways it was at the heart of my decision to return to Northeast Ohio as a basketball player.
On the court, the goal will always be to win a title. But off the court, the more important goal remains to shape the lives of young people in the community in the same way that Coach Dru shaped mine. And if I can do that, even just a little bit, then I will have accomplished something that means so much more to me than any championship. – LeBron James, August 2014, from the foreword
It's nowhere near an ordinary success story.
In less than ten years, Dru Joyce II went from someone living a dull middle‑management existence to being one of the most visible high school basketball coaches in the country. As the coach of one of high school basketball’s great programs, Joyce has been mentor and motivator to some of the nation’s best young players, including basketball legend LeBron James. Despite having virtually no experience in the sport, in less than ten years Joyce went from a no-name fan to one of the highest profile basketball coaches in the country.
As LeBron James's high school basketball coach, Dru Joyce II (‘Coach Dru’) is the mentor who the NBA superstar credits with helping him reach his potential as both a basketball player and a man. Yet while LeBron is unquestionably his highest-profile protégé, Coach Dru has used his position as a basketball coach at St. Vincent-St. Mary High School in Akron to help transform the lives of countless young men. Coach Dru is one of the superstars of high school basketball, rising quickly through the ranks to coach a national championship team. The book is co-authored by Chris Morrow, the coauthor of the numerous New York Times bestsellers and a former college basketball player for Vassar College.
With insight and grit earned from his years on and off the court, Coach Dru in Beyond Championships shares for the first time the secrets to his teams’ success and his own coaching achievements. As he outlines the nine principles that he promotes to his players and tries to live in his own life as well, readers discover that the foundation on which he built so many successful basketball programs can be applied to almost any situation, launching them on a journey to unlock their full potential.
... I am grateful for Coach Dru’s mentoring and the leadership he is providing for so many young people. Beyond Championships reveals the heart and soul of a good man and a good coach. It’s a must-read for young people, as well as for older people. Thanks, Coach Dru, for sharing with us some lifetime lessons we can all use on our journey. – Mel Blount, four-time Super Bowl champion and member of the NFL Hall of Fame
... For Coach Dru, living a full and productive life has always been about more than just basketball. It's about relationships and being a Christian man and being a great father. It's about how to treat women, how to compete, how to be a student athlete, and so much more. Coach Dru is the best coach I've ever had. Not just because he's so good at the X's and 0's, but also because he knows how to help a young person be the best person he can be. Coach often asked, "Are you prepared for the game of life? Because it never stops, even when the clock on the scoreboard hits 00:00!" Thank you, Coach Dru, for all you have done to prepare me for the game of life. – Willie McGee, "Fab Five" member of the St. Vincent‑St. Mary basketball team (1999–2003) and current assistant coach of the Chowan University men's basketball team
... I'm excited that in Beyond Championships, Coach Dru shares the principles that helped mold so many other young lives as well. Coach Dru's story should inspire all readers, both young and old alike, to have the faith to chase their dreams, no matter what obstacles they perceive to be in front of them. – Russell Simmons, cofounder of Def Jam Records and author of Super Rich: A Guide to Having It All
Anything that Dru Joyce has to say is important, because he is a quality man who cares about young men! – Bishop F. Josephus Johnson II, presiding bishop of The Beth-El Fellowship of Visionary Churches and senior pastor of The House of the Lord
Coach Dru's teachings on faith, family, and character are an inspiration to athletes and nonathletes alike. Beyond Championships transcends sports the way Coach Dru's influence on young lives reaches far beyond the basketball court. – Kristopher Belman, writer/director of the documentary More Than a Game
Beyond Championships is what happens when one of the nation's most influential high school coaches lets us in on his secrets to success. Whether or not you love sports, this book and the life lessons herein are invaluable to both young and old. Sit down, read, enjoy, and learn! – Harvey Mason Jr., music/movie producer; producer of More Than a Game
This champion level book about faith and hard work just might change the course of readers’ lives. Far more than a sports book, Beyond Championships is a blueprint for anyone looking to make better choices, reach their full potential, and become winners in life.
History / Americas / Native Studies / Genocide Studies
Murder State: California's Native American Genocide, 1846-1873 by Brendan C. Lindsay (University of Nebraska Press)
In the second half of the nineteenth century, the Euro-American citizenry of California carried out mass genocide against the Native population of their state, using the processes and mechanisms of democracy to secure land and resources for themselves and their private interests. The murder, rape, and enslavement of thousands of Native people were legitimized by notions of democracy – in this case mob rule – through a discreetly organized and brutally effective series of petitions, referenda, town hall meetings, and votes at every level of California government.
Murder State is a comprehensive examination of these events and their early legacy. Preconceptions about Native Americans as shaped by the popular press and by immigrants’ experiences on the Overland Trail to California were used to further justify the elimination of Native people in the newcomers’ quest for land. The allegedly ‘violent nature’ of Native people was often merely their reaction to the atrocities committed against them as they were driven from their ancestral lands and alienated from their traditional resources.
In this narrative history employing numerous primary sources and the latest interdisciplinary scholarship on genocide, Brendan C. Lindsay examines the darker side of California history, one rarely studied in detail, and the motives of both Native Americans and Euro-Americans at the time. Murder State calls attention to the misuse of democracy to justify and commit genocide. Brendan C. Lindsay is an assistant professor of history at California State University, Sacramento.
Lindsay says that his reason for pursuing this study does not rest upon a desire to make a comparison of genocides or measure atrocity against atrocity. Rather the motive for Murder State rests upon a practical foundation. California voters, teachers, courts, and lawmakers continue to face choices that affect Native American people in the state. It is vital that people should be made fully aware that the present is a product of the past as regards Native American peoples in California, their history, present numbers, and state of affairs. Californians are the beneficiaries of genocide. Few Californians today contextualize their homes as sitting upon stolen land or land gained by bloody force or artful deceits, nor do they likely consider the social and political questions of present-day Native American affairs in this light.
Moreover it would not hurt for most of us to be reminded that the rhetoric of freedom, liberty, and democracy has been put to terrible use in the past, and can be so again. The will of the white majority drove the democratic process of creating a multifaceted campaign of genocide in California, in which Native people were starved to death, worked to death, shot to death, or so badly broken by poverty, exposure, and malnutrition as to waste away from diseases at an alarming rate. Representatives were elected, laws enacted, meetings held, and companies of volunteers empowered, all in the name of legally removing or exterminating Native peoples in the state.
Murder State examines the formative years of the state of California with a focus on proving that the genocidal neglect, abuse, and murder of California's Native American population were commonly known to Euro-Americans and their various levels of government in California, which supported genocide by apathy, if not by open participation and active public support.
Beginning with the invasion and settlement of California by overland settlers from the United States in the 1840s, Murder State extends into the 1870s. Methodologically Lindsay employs genocide theory, especially as conceived by sociologists, and historical investigation to make a sustained case for the charge of genocide at the statewide level and at the hands of ordinary white citizens using genocide as a tool to effect a change in property ownership or to protect property already held. The California story is only one example of the Native American genocide lasting for centuries. Indeed the genocide is still ongoing if one concedes that its suppression, its silencing in mainstream U.S. history indicates complicity across time and space.
Murder State is divided into three parts. Part 1, "Imagining Genocide," discusses the historical and cultural foundations of Native American genocide by examining the way Euro-Americans imagined Indians, as well as the motives of emigrants from the United States to California during the era just prior to the war with Mexico and into the Gold Rush era. Many of the Euro-Americans flooding into California in these years came with existing fear, hatred, and racism directed at Indians. An important piece of evidence in examining Euro-American perceptions of Native peoples and the preconceived strategies suggested for dealing with them is printed in trail guides and emigrant guides, which played upon fears of Indian savagery already present in the Euro-American consciousness. Trail guides advised travel in large parties bearing plentiful weapons and ammunition ready to hand. A policy of shoot first and ask questions later was typically advised, a practice that would continue among the volunteer companies that massacred Native Americans in California. Despite these latent fears and vivid warnings, violence was actually quite rare between Euro-Americans and Native Americans on the overland trail during the 1840s and 1850s.
In the more than two dozen trail narratives and diaries Lindsay examined for Murder State, Indian difficulties were much feared and discussed as threats to life and limb, but never encountered. Despite the lack of evidence of hostilities between emigrants and Native Americans, sensationalized accounts of Indian violence and savagery obtained by rumor or in print were vivid in the minds of many emigrants. Upon reaching California, rather than being relieved of their fears they remained woefully ignorant of the true character of the Native American civilizations whose lands they had so recently traversed.
Once emigrants arrived in California, convinced that their vigilance and strength of arms had brought them safely across, they found a place much different from what they had read about in the papers or heard as rumors. It was a foreign place, but the foreign place and its peoples did not deter them. Part 2, "Perpetrating Genocide," explores how Euro-Americans set about making their dreams a reality by rapidly remaking the legal and governmental systems to replicate structures they had known in the East and Midwest. The opening rounds of the genocide were democratically organized by settlers and miners. While California had a state militia, it was the legally organized, heavily armed local volunteer units that committed most of the murders needed to speed up the dispossession and destruction of California's Native peoples. These men, often elevated to the status of local heroes, served as the most violently effective tool of a democracy aroused against Native Americans: citizen-soldiers engaged in acts of self-interest disguised as self-preservation.
Though it may seem counterintuitive to conceive of democracy as organized for murderous purposes, it was clearly the system employed by the many roving death squads known as volunteer companies in nineteenth-century California. Volunteers murdered thousands of Native people, including men, women, and children. Volunteers then often enslaved or removed those who survived but did not escape. After suitable ‘chastisement’ – a euphemism of Euro-Americans that could refer to anything from outright murder to burning villages and driving the inhabitants into homeless exile to capture and imprisonment on crude reservations – or the legal expiration of their charters, companies disbanded and pressed claims for pay and other remuneration due them by state law. The federal government paid the state of California millions of dollars in the 1850s alone in settlement of such claims. Such was the system engaged by everyday white settlers serving in volunteer companies and the state militia to bring about genocide, secure lands wrested from Native peoples, and obtain more land by their absence or demise.
Part 3, "Supporting Genocide," considers the way the organs of government and the popular press responded to the wishes of white Americans. Euro-Americans created the state in such a way as to make being a Native American in California basically illegal. By using the democratic process and republican government to create a self-interested legal system that favored whites, Euro-Americans imposed laws that created injustice for unrepresented Native peoples. Even when they enacted laws that ostensibly afforded some protection to Native Americans, the state government, courts, and white citizenry ignored their own laws whenever and wherever these laws conflicted with their self-interests. Native peoples were forced to represent themselves in ways that Euro-Americans conceived to be illegal, dangerous, and uncivilized.
The process of the legal dehumanization of California's Indigenous peoples through the actions of the three branches of the state government of California, and to a lesser degree of local and county government structures, was also an element of genocide. In particular legislative acts instituted a system of Indian slavery. Even in cases where Native peoples escaped enslavement, laws regulating everything from fishing to labor to landholding made it difficult to make a living or even live in California. Legislators passed laws to please their constituents, often violating the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo and usually ignoring the primacy of the federal government in regulating Indian affairs in order to deliver Native American lands and resources into the hands of settlers. Taken together the acts of local, regional, and state governments in California show them to be complicit in the genocide of Native American peoples.
The federal government in California also demonstrated complicity in genocide. The inaction and neglect of federal officials in California, especially of Indian agents and superintendents, helped contribute to the abuse and murder of Native peoples. Magazine and newspaper publishers and editors, poets, artists, and authors, through the printed word and image, helped reinforce the popular perception of Indians as a savage people worthy of disdain, violent treatment, and ultimately murder. Stories of Indian atrocities and depredations were reported frequently and usually without any attention to the truth or consideration of the Native American perspective. The voice of Native people was absent in the press; indeed Lindsay says he never found any attempt in any paper to interview or otherwise publish the views of Native Americans in the period under study. Yet these papers contain truths all the same, and by sifting through hearsay-generated stories and comparing them with eyewitness accounts, one can find kernels of truth and learn something of the reality of Native American life in California. One can also detect the similarity of attitudes toward Native Americans expressed in the press, from south to north and east to west in California: Indians were dangerous animals, and if they could not be moved, they must be killed.
[Murder State is] one of the most important works ever published on the history of American Indians in California in the mid-nineteenth century. – Steven Newcomb, Indian Country
Democracy and genocide are two activities that most would declare antagonistic. Yet Brendan Lindsay presents primary evidence that reveals the hatred and murderous acts committed by early Californians and government officials, as a grassroots movement, to settle the ‘Golden State’ by exterminating and dispossessing Native peoples of their ancestral homelands. – Jack Norton, Hupa historian and emeritus professor of Native American studies, Humboldt State University
Historian Brendan Lindsay has documented the attempted extermination of California’s first people and provided a detailed, comprehensive historical treatment of California’s genocide. He offers a groundbreaking study that will change the historiography of California and genocide studies – a penetrating but readable book that will quickly become a classic. – Larry Myers (Pomo), executive secretary of the California Native American Heritage Commission
A significant historical account detailing white pioneers perpetrating genocide against California Indians.... [Employs] compelling evidence. – Clifford E. Trafzer, Journal of American Studies
Lindsay’s methodology and conclusions ... highlight important questions for scholars to ask of frontier societies, their legal systems, and their citizens. – Brenden Rensink, Western Historical Quarterly
Perhaps the most provocative aspect of his book is Lindsay’s connection of American democracy to the killing of Indians. – Robert G. Lee, American Historical Review
Many tens of thousands of Native Americans perished in the genocide, but the tenacity of California's Indigenous population outlasted attempts to exterminate them, which has now allowed a recent revitalization. Murder State may convince people to aid in the continued restoration of Native lands and tribal sovereignty. This study can provide background information for making informed, intelligent decisions.
History / Europe / World War II
Europe on Trial: The Story of Collaboration, Resistance, and Retribution during World War II by István Deák (Westview Press)
In Europe on Trial, acclaimed historian István Deák explores the history of collaboration, retribution, and resistance during World War II. These three themes are examined through the experiences of people and countries under German occupation, as well as Soviet, Italian, and other military rule. Those under foreign rule faced innumerable moral and ethical dilemmas, including the question of whether to cooperate with their occupiers, try to survive the war without any political involvement, or risk their lives by becoming resisters. Many chose all three, depending on wartime conditions. Following the brutal war, Deák discusses the purges of real or alleged war criminals and collaborators, through various acts of violence, deportations, and judicial proceedings at the Nuremberg International Military Tribunal as well as in thousands of local courts. Deák, a professor emeritus of history at Columbia University, is an authority on modern Central European and general World War II history. Writing often for the New York Review of Books and the New Republic, Deák has crafted review essays that cover the breadth and depth of the history of Hitler’s Europe. The foreword is by Norman M. Naimark.
According to Deák in Europe on Trial, countries that fell under Hitler's reign in the early and mid-twentieth century experienced armed conflict, foreign occupation, aerial bombardments, persecution, concentration camps, and, what is perhaps less well known, ferocious civil and ethnic wars. It is hard to generalize about a region that, at its greatest, extended from the Arctic tip of Norway to the Pyrenees on the French-Spanish border and from the French port of Calais to the highest peaks of the Caucasus. In all of these places, and everywhere in between, German soldiers and policemen were numerous enough to rule the land but not enough to control every town, village, and forest. As a consequence, national governments, local authorities, native populations, and diverse social classes and interest groups, as well as many individuals, were eager, for myriad reasons, to tolerate the inevitable presence of, actively collaborate with, or oppose the ruling Germans.
Simultaneous with the process of land grabbing was the greatest ethnic cleansing in European history, primarily but by far not exclusively in the form of the "Final Solution of the Jewish Question." The program attempted to eliminate a group of perhaps 9 million people from the face of the earth. The fact that, at the end of the war, nearly two-thirds of the Jews in Hitler's Europe had been killed, was due, on the one hand, to the grim determination of the Germans and their many European helpers to exterminate the Jews and, on the other hand, to Allied victory and the humanitarian impulse of some Europeans. Europe on Trial therefore examines the various forms of collaboration with and resistance to the German Nazis in the ‘Jewish Question’ by governments allied to Germany as well as by peoples, groups, and individuals. Sympathy for or hostility to National Socialist ideology was only one of many factors in the complex game of determining the fate of the Jews in Europe at that time.
Europe on Trial shows how collaboration and resistance took many forms during the war. The former ranged from offering a glass of water to a thirsty German soldier all the way to assisting the Gestapo by denouncing, hunting down, torturing, and killing potential and real resisters. Conversely, the latter extended from wearing a patriotic badge hidden under one's lapel to serving and dying in a partisan army, as was the case for hundreds of thousands of Yugoslavs, Poles, and Soviet citizens.
Europe on Trial deals with questions of collaboration, resistance, and retribution in countries where supreme authority lay in the hands of the German army and other representatives of the Third Reich. This was the case of the Czech lands (then called the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, today the Czech Republic), Poland, Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, France, Yugoslavia, Greece, the Baltic countries, and the German-occupied parts of the Soviet Union. Yet World War II Europe did not consist solely of Nazi Germany and the countries that the German military occupied. There was also a large group made up of Germany's politically independent allies: Finland, which was officially a cobelligerent and not an ally, as well as Italy, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Croatia, and Bulgaria, all of which had their own heads of state, ministries, diplomacy, armies, police, and national administrations. All this meant that by following government orders in countries allied to Germany, individuals or groups were often able either to promote or to harm the German cause.
There was also a third category of countries in wartime Europe, namely, the handful of neutrals whose relations with Nazi Germany varied according to time, place, and the interests of their governments. Ironically, Spain and Portugal, whose political systems somewhat resembled those of Italy and Germany, conducted highly cautious policies toward Hitler and Mussolini. On the other hand, democratic Switzerland and Sweden were geographically so close to Nazi power that their leaders considered it necessary to support the German war industry, at least during the first years of the war.
When the war was over and the time came for settling accounts, a wave of purges swept Europe: millions became the targets of retribution; millions also acted as the initiators and executors of retribution. It is Deák’s estimation that post-World War II criminal courts investigated, even if they did not always try and sentence, one in every twenty adult males for treason, war crimes, or collaboration with Germany. Interestingly, quite a few among those who were condemned for their wartime activities were also praised, and sometimes even decorated for their heroic resistance activity.
Throughout, Europe on Trial raises the question, directly and indirectly, of what kind of Europe its inhabitants hoped to have after the war. Readers see that there was no consensus on such issues as Europe's future role in the world, the possible unification of the continent, and the nature of the necessary social, economic, and political reforms. Millions of Europeans, more in Eastern than in Western Europe, agreed, however, on the necessity of ridding their respective countries of alien elements, be they foreign occupiers, immigrants, refugees, or domestic minorities. In particular, many Europeans agreed, even in Western Europe, with the Nazi plan, if not the method, of ridding the continent of Jews. If there was one major European project, it was ethnic cleansing.
Europe on Trial casts a brief glance on the history of military occupations and atrocities often caused by the mutual mistrust and fear of soldiers and civilians. It also looks at international attempts to regulate the presence of enemy soldiers in foreign territory. This is followed by an analysis of why, in 1939, twenty-five years after the outbreak of World War I, the world again faced a general military conflict. Subsequently, Chapter 2 turns to the early German conquests: the occupation of Austria in 1938, where German troops were greeted as brothers freeing the people from the burden of having to govern themselves; the occupation of the Czech lands in the spring of 1939, where the German occupation was perceived as a national tragedy but one within which the Czech people should make the best of a difficult situation; and the bitterly resisted German invasion of Poland, on September 1, 1939, which marked the beginning of the European war.
Chapter 3 presents an overall picture of the collapse of northern and Western Europe under the German military onslaught and the initial attempt of many in the two regions to live with or even profit from the German presence. Yet as Chapter 4 explains, the generally unexpected and still unexplainable German military attack on its ally the Soviet Union, in June 1941, changed all plans and expectations. The war had suddenly become profoundly ideological.
For the East Europeans, the German-Soviet war presented a nearly insoluble dilemma: where to place themselves in the clash of two threatening giants. Who was the greater enemy in a strange situation in which the small countries were also often each other's bitterest enemies? Chapter 5 tries to explain the particularly difficult situation in which Germany's numerous allies found themselves following Operation Barbarossa, as the German attack on Russia was called.
The German army's first defeat, near Moscow, in the winter of 1941-1942, encouraged the hitherto nearly invisible resistance movements to gather strength and self-confidence, which is the topic of Chapters 6 and 7. Europe on Trial separates Western and northern Europe from Eastern and southeastern Europe, for while the anti-Nazi struggle and postwar reform were the firm goals of resisters from Norway to France and Italy, the
tasks and objectives of those in the East and Southeast were far more complex. The heroic romanticism of resistance activity turned out to be the stuff more of Hollywood than of reality. Chapter 8 shows, through three detailed cases, what mindless brutalities the occupiers were driven to by resistance activity. The main victims of resistance were generally neither the occupiers nor the resisters but the civilian population. The last chapters of Europe on Trial give specific examples of the postwar retribution as well as attempt some generalizations regarding the unprecedented and never-repeated catharsis and purges that Europe experienced during and after liberation.
Sparing few words, István Deák brilliantly captures the complex and
contradictory world that confronted Europeans under Nazi rule. From Belgium to
Bulgaria, from the first German conquests to postwar trials, the book presents a
refreshingly original and deeply insightful narrative that upends traditional
stories of heroism, perseverance, or betrayal. In riveting and accessible prose,
Deák gives us a story that will become the standard in university courses on the
war and modern European history. – Benjamin Frommer, Northwestern University
No historian is better suited than István Deák to survey collaboration, resistance, and retribution in relation to the Second World War. Europe on Trial excavates the complexities, ambiguities, and ironies of these occupation experiences. Deák’s insightful analysis and vibrant storytelling also follows an unerring moral compass. Here is a master scholar’s eloquent meditation on Hitler’s Europe. – James Mace Ward, University of Rhode Island
Professor Deák has provided an essential service to the historical profession by writing a book which provides a synthetic overview of collaboration and resistance in Nazi-Dominated Europe. His book fills an enormous gap in the textbook literature on the Third Reich by viewing the period through the lens of the various national histories of occupation and domination. He also illuminates the extent to which the Holocaust could not have been accomplished without the willing collaboration of many Europeans. – Benjamin Lapp, Montclair State University
A good deal of the literature, especially on collaboration and retribution is focused on western Europe. Deák, an accomplished scholar of modern central and east European history, brings much-needed balance to this discussion. – Robert Blobaum, West Virginia University
This book should attract huge interest, not only among those of us who teach upper-level modern European history courses, but from the greater public as well. – Nancy Wingfield, Northern Illinois University
Traditionally, historians have made a sharp break in 1945, either covering the war or postwar but not both. Recently, more and more scholars are realizing that the 1939-1949 decade hangs together in many ways. It is a real strength of this book that it embraces the whole decade. – James Felak, University of Washington
István Deák's essays on Europe's crisis decades have long been indispensable reading for historians of modern Europe. His new book crowns a distinguished career, and offers a truly fresh perspective on one of the most fascinating and fateful periods in twentieth-century European history. – Bruce Thompson, University of California, Santa Cruz
This is an excellent contribution on an important subject by an experienced scholar. The truly European range of the exposition is impressive. The interpretations are interesting and the attempt at evaluative balance exemplary. – Konrad H. Jarausch, University of North Carolina
Coming from an experienced scholar, this insightful analysis provides a fresh perspective not only on the war; Europe on Trial helps readers understand the many moral consequences both during and immediately following World War II. It makes clear the extent to which the Holocaust could not have been so extensive without the willing collaboration of many.
Home & Garden / Crafts & Hobbies / Woodworking
Arts & Crafts Furniture Projects by Gregory Paolini (The Taunton Press)
The Arts and Crafts style is one of the most popular and enduring in woodworking. Arts & Crafts Furniture Projects celebrates the beauty of wood and the furniture makers who helped launch a new aesthetic movement in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, which became known as Arts & Crafts. Featuring nine beautiful projects of varying difficulty, Arts & Crafts Furniture Projects will appeal to all skill levels of woodworkers.
Gustav Stickley, The Greene Brothers, and other craftsmen and designers established Arts & Crafts in North America more than a century ago. Today, Arts & Crafts furniture is more popular than ever, and pieces by Stickley and the other original masters are highly collectible.
The author is professional woodworker Gregory Paolini, a frequent contributor to Fine Woodworking magazine, with an affinity for the Arts & Crafts style. He owns and operates a custom furniture and cabinetry business near Asheville and also teaches and writes about woodworking.
Paoli says that making furniture in the Arts & Crafts style can be rewarding for both beginning woodworkers and seasoned veterans. At one extreme, the simple forms, honest joinery and straightforward lines are well within the grasp of someone new to the craft. At the other end of the spectrum, more complex pieces may present a challenge to makers who have spent their entire lives honing their skills.
Arts & Crafts Furniture Projects presents various furniture projects in a number of Arts & Crafts styles. Each project introduces a skill set or technique to be mastered. And each subsequent project builds upon the previous skills while introducing new ones. As readers work through this book, their talents will improve as they create beautiful and functional pieces of furniture for their own homes.
Projects in Arts & Crafts Furniture Projects include:
Arts & Crafts Furniture Projects also includes a section on good options for finishing and sources of supply for arts & crafts hardware. The book will appeal to both beginning woodworkers and seasoned woodworkers. It builds readers' skills while outfitting their homes with a suite of wonderful furniture.
Literature & Fiction / Historical / Western
Into the Savage Country: A Novel by Shannon Burke (Pantheon)
Shannon Burke is the author of the novels Safelight and Black Flies (a New York Times Notable Book). He has also worked on several film projects, including Syriana. Well crafted and vividly told, Burke's books are visceral gems. Now, in his third novel, Burke takes on Western Fiction with a breathtaking adventure set in the American West of the 1820s.
Into the Savage Country is a tale of love, adventure, and complex male
friendships, all set against a gorgeous mountainous backdrop. It is a panoramic
retelling of a crucial moment in American history.
When the young William Wyeth leaves St. Louis for a fur-trapping expedition, he nearly loses his life and quickly discovers the depth of loyalty among the men who must depend on one another to survive. While convalescing, he falls in love with proud Alene, a young widow who may or may not wait for him. And on a wildly risky expedition into Crow territory, Wyeth finds himself unwittingly at the center of a deadly boundary dispute among Native American tribes, the British government, and American trapping brigades.
The lure of the wilderness proves irresistible for a young trapper in this
glorious American frontier novel.... Burke includes fine episodes of derring-do
and there is a thrilling climax, but character is his overriding interest, the
way it is shaped by tests of endurance in magnificent, alien landscapes. A grand
immersion into the past. – Kirkus Reviews (starred review)
Steeped in Americana, this gritty testament to the fortunes and foibles of one man moves well beyond classic notions of romantic nationalism, revealing the complex core of a rapidly evolving environmental landscape. [A] beautifully conceived version of frontier life. – Booklist
Burke's fist venture into western fiction (after two novels set in the present, Safelight and Black Flies) is a masterpiece of historical accuracy and exciting storytelling.... This is a raucous tale of a young man's dream colliding with reality, and it also makes an entertaining history of fur trapping. – Publishers Weekly (starred review)
A classic adventure told with suspense and literary flair, Into the Savage Country illuminates the ways in which extreme circumstances expose the truth about the natures of individual men and the surprising mechanics of their bravery, loyalty, and friendship.
Political Science / Political Ideologies
The Great Divide: Why Liberals and Conservatives Will Never, Ever Agree by William D. Gairdner (Encounter Books)
The theme of
The Great Divide is that the populations of the democratic world, from
Boston to Berlin, Vancouver to Venice, are becoming increasingly divided from
within, due to a growing ideological incompatibility between modern liberalism
and conservatism. According to William D. Gairdner, this is partly due to a
complex mutation in the concept of liberal democracy itself, and the resulting
divide is now so wide that those holding to either philosophy on a whole range
of topics: on democracy, on reason, on abortion, on human nature, on
homosexuality and gay marriage, on freedom, on the role of courts … can barely
speak with each other without outrage (the favorite emotional response from all
sides). Clearly, civil conversation at the surface has been failing – and that
could mean democracy is failing.
Gairdner is a retired athlete and businessman who taught at York University in Toronto.
The Great Divide is an effort to deepen the conversation. It is written for non-specialists and aims to reveal the less obvious underlying ideological forces and misconceptions that cause the conflict and outrage at the surface – not with any expectation the clash of values will evaporate, but rather that a deeper understanding will generate a more intelligent and civil conversation.
The contention of The Great Divide is that no matter what the topic, debates always take place on at least two levels – at the surface and in the depths. There is what people believe is the cause of a problem; and somewhere else, way down below, beyond the facts as they appear is the real, hidden cause. The book is about depths, not surfaces. The terms liberal and conservative as used are not political party labels. Rather, they describe the two sides of a deep liberal-versus-conservative philosophical and ideological divide that is pre-political.
The Great Divide is divided into four parts. The first provides a brief overview of the historical mutations of liberal democracy, followed by a description of conservatism. Readers are presented with the first of more than a dozen tables that appear throughout the book, each asking "Where do you stand?" The tables contrast the underlying liberal-versus-conservative view of the topic under discussion. Readers who test their personal opinions against these tables may gain a deeper insight into why they think as they do now, will assess their views in a fresh light, and will either solidify or alter them.
Despite being on the conservative side, Gairdner says he has worked hard in The Great Divide to minimize his personal feelings and views in order to articulate the stark contrasts between modern liberal and conservative viewpoints.
Part 2 offers a brief description of the forces that Gairdner believes are at work in all modern democracies dissolving the social and moral bonds of civil society. Once a democracy mutates, or inverts, from its original foundation in self-reliance, self-discipline, and liberty under law to an egalitarian foundation with an emphasis on rights, self-gratification, and self-expression, the die is cast. Which is to say, trouble begins once a general attitude emerges that individuals who once believed they should serve their most revered institutions and support the objects of their own civil society start to believe that those institutions and their society should be serving them. But the main theme of this part of The Great Divide is that democracies that mutate in this way end up creating a pincer-like pressure that dissolves their own civil societies.
Part 3 of The Great Divide offers discussions of eight core topics on which modern liberals and conservatives are starkly divided at the deepest level. They differ over their foundational conceptions of human nature, of the role of reason in human life, of the proper role and purpose of democracy, and of the meaning of freedom. They also differ sharply on the concepts of equality and inequality; on the meaning of morality and the significance of the self; and on the role of human will in shaping human biology, and society at large. Finally, there are irreconcilable root differences in the general liberal and conservative discussions about God, the role of religion, and what these mean for our understanding of just about everything.
In part 4, discussion moves to what are arguably the three hottest social and moral issues on the democratic table – homosexuality, abortion, and euthanasia. These are watershed issues that sharply divide because they cannot be meaningfully debated without calling up the opposing liberal and conservative conceptions of freedom, human nature, democracy, equality, and so on that were laid bare in part 3.
William Gairdner is an original thinker. His book will challenge both liberals and conservatives. – Tom Flanagan, professor emeritus of political science at the University of Calgary
Written in a most accessible style, The Great Divide will appeal to anyone looking for real clarity on the bitterly-contested issues of our time – especially, perhaps, to a younger generation wondering what their elders have done to our civilization. The author boldly delineates the liberal and conservative positions on the central political and moral issues of our time, while providing much helpful insight and up-to-date knowledge along the way. Highly recommended. – Ian Gentles, professor emeritus of history at York University, Toronto
Beautifully written and brimming with insight into the western intellectual tradition, Gairdner's book shows how the present liberal-conservative divide is not primarily about political priorities or constituencies, but concerns fundamental disagreements over the nature of democracy, human freedom, and the possibility of knowing right. Gairdner does not promise to heal the divide – which he sees as irreconcilable – but to make us more aware of what exactly we are disagreeing about. A must-read for all who care to understand the foundations of their (and their opponents') most deeply-cherished beliefs. – Janice Fiamengo, professor of English at the University of Ottawa
The Great Divide reveals the informal structure of arguments built up on each side, so that in the end, readers will have a firmer grasp of how their own arguments – and those of their opponents – have been built and why. Readers who may have been less than sure of which side should win in the internal chess battle of their own ideas may be able to say, "Now I know better where I stand, and why."
Religion & Spirituality / Christianity / Theology
Mangoes or Bananas?: The Quest for an Authentic Asian Christian Theology, 2nd edition by Yung Hwa (American Society of Missiology Series, No. 52: Orbis Books)
Mangoes or Bananas?, 2nd edition is an update from the
1997 original, with new autobiographical information and a new introduction and
conclusion. It provides history and analysis of Asian theologies, both past and
present, with a critical eye toward those which are too foreign to the Asian
experience and context.
Mangoes or Bananas? takes a forthright look at the various strands of Asian Christian theology, evaluating both their histories and the degree to which they remain pertinent to Asian experiences of God and culture. Asian theology, in author Yung Hwa's conception, is often more like a banana, with a beautiful yellow exterior, but white within. The mango, on the other hand, comes in many different shades of skin, but inside it is completely yellow.
Yung Hwa (note surname is first) is a retired bishop of the Methodist Church in Malaysia. In July 2001, he was appointed the first Director of the Centre for the Study of Christianity in Asia (CSCA), Trinity Theological College, Singapore.
Mangoes or Bananas? is the result of a long pilgrimage which formally began when Yung first embarked on academic theological studies in Britain some twenty years ago. Yung says he found that again and again, the Western theologies that he was learning failed to answer the questions that he was consciously and subconsciously asking from within his own spiritual, cultural, and sociopolitical context.
Later Yung says he read more of what Asian theological writers had produced. But again, there was a sense of disappointment with what he found because he felt that much of the material was only superficially contextual. They often failed to address the questions that the Asian church at the grassroots was wrestling with. The writings also tended to be too academic. And there was simply too much captivity to the Enlightenment framework. This dissertation is the product of that struggle.
Given the vast amount of material that has come online since Mangoes or Bananas? was first published, it would be impossible to incorporate it into a revised edition. He therefore decided that the wisest course of action is to leave the book as it was without alterations, apart from typos and a few word changes. However, a new preface has been added with a brief survey of some more recent literature, plus a new concluding chapter. The latter is a slightly revised version of an earlier published article wherein Yung shares his personal journey to explain how he came to the conclusions arrived at in the book, together with some pointers for further developments for the future.
Over the last few hundred years the Church in the Western world has not only brought the gospel to Africa, Asia and Latin America, but it has also done so in a deeply enculturated Western form. Whereas this may have been welcomed in the past by Christians in the Two-Thirds World, because of its associations with a more advanced technology and an apparently more advanced civilization, increasingly this perceived imposition of alien cultural categories and forms is being questioned and even rejected. The two, main reasons for this are, first, an increasing dissatisfaction with a `western' Christianity as against an indigenous variety, and second, a quest for a clearer sense of self-identity on the part of Christians throughout the Two-Thirds World.
Western theologies are the products of the histories, cultures and realities of the West. They cannot, therefore, adequately address the existential realities of the rest of the world because these differ so much from those of the West. The Asian theologian, Kosuke Koyama, lists the six themes characterizing Asian theological concerns as follows: the relation or relevance of Christ to revolutionary social change, widespread poverty, ethnic and economic minorities, both the positive and negative aspects of culture, the plurality of religions, and ecclesiastical divisions. While some Western writers may have worked with some of these issues, the majority of Western theological writings can hardly be expected to deal with these issues in detail or with the same degree of sensitivity of those who wrestle with these as daily existential realities.
The first question is: What are the criteria for an adequate theology of mission? Yung begins by defining what constitutes the mission of the church, especially in light of present-day discussions within Roman Catholic, ecumenical and evangelical Christian circles. This forms Chapter 2 of Mangoes or Bananas?. He then proposes some criteria for an adequate theology of mission, and relates these to the Asian Christian context. This constitutes Chapters 3 and 4.
The book then proceeds with an examination of some representative examples of Asian Christian theological writings, on the bases of two further questions. First, what are the outward forms, inner contents, methodologies and underlying presuppositions of these writings? Second, how do these measure up to the proposed criteria for an adequate theology of mission? The answers to these two questions are sought by means of both content and conceptual analyses of the writings under study.
Since the amount of literature available on the subject is immense, Mangoes or Bananas? is delimited in the following manner. First, it deals primarily with Protestant writings. Roman Catholic works are not examined – with the exception of the 17th century Jesuit efforts in China and India because of their pivotal historical importance. Further, for the pre-World War Two period, the study concentrates on those efforts from China, India and Japan which best serve to illustrate the proposed criteria for an adequate theology of mission most clearly, either positively and negatively. Both primary and secondary sources are used. This forms the content of Chapter 5.
Chapters 6 and 7 form the climax of Mangoes or Bananas?, focusing on Protestant theological writings in the post-World War Two period. The most important theologians and groups are examined using primary sources. The choice of both group productions and individual authors for inclusion are based on three considerations. First, the individual or group should be speaking to the concerns of both the peoples and Church of Asia. Secondly, the individual or group should be speaking from the perspective of the Asian Church, and, therefore, as far as possible, be representative of the segment of the Asian Church to which he/she or they belong. Thirdly, Yung also considers their general acceptability by the international Christian community as being representative spokespersons for Asian Christianity. However, this last criterion is not allowed to overshadow the first two. Otherwise, there would be the danger of allowing First World theologians and church leaders, who already dominate international theological discussions presently, to act as 'king-makers' for Asian Christianity.
The use of the above three considerations in the selection of Asian theological writings allows the conclusions of this study to be generally applied to Asian theology and the Asian Church as a whole. The final chapter includes a summary of the findings and a proposal for the contours of an authentic Asian theology.
I can hardly find the words to praise sufficiently this new edition of Mangoes or Bananas? a book I have long considered one of the most important theological works of the past quarter-century. This edition preserves the wealth of its predecessor and adds an autobiographical dimension that brings into relief both the theological options Hwa Yung has followed and why. That testimony adds depth to a book that everyone interested in world Christianity and mission must read. Hwa Yung helps us grasp what occurs when Asian Christians recover the transcendent depths of their cultures and open themselves to the light that the Gospel sheds on living Christianity authentically as Asians. – William R. Burrows
An essential book for any student of World Christianity, Mangoes or Bananas? is a contribution to the wider Christian community; bringing some fellow pilgrims, especially those from the Two-Thirds World, some light. It will likely contribute to the shaping of churches throughout Asia.
Religion & Spirituality / Occult
The Essential Guide to Possession, Depossession, and Divine Relationships by Diana L. Paxson (Weiser Books)
Bestselling author of several fantasy novels including Marion Zimmer Bradley's Ancestors of Avalon, Diana L. Paxson now turns her attention to Trance Possession, specifically, how to safely and effectively enter and exit possessory trance. In possessory trance, one voluntarily offers one's body as a vehicle for spirit work. This differs from other forms of trance in that one's ‘normal’ personality is replaced by a personality that is identified by oneself and one's community as a spirit or a god.
Paxson is the author of nearly three dozen novels and several works of spiritual nonfiction. She has been a practicing priestess for nearly thirty years and lectures and conducts workshops in North America and Europe.
In The Essential Guide to Possession, Depossession, and Divine Relationships Paxson explores all aspects of trance possession, including:
To learn how to get people in and out of trance safely Paxson says she spent many years working with the American Magic Umbanda House in Northern California, and she has learned how to step back and let her body be operated by a god. She and her group are not the only ones to have discovered that possessory trance is not limited to people in traditional cultures. It is one of the oldest ways to get closer to the Divine. In some form, it is known in almost every human culture, and it is occurring, spontaneously or intentionally, in many spiritual communities today. The idea that another personality can take over one’s body is disturbing, and yet this dance with the Divine has been a goal of ecstatic religion for millennia: from the shaman dancing his animal allies to the early Christian speaking in tongues, from voudou initiates ridden by the loa to New Age channelers.
Paxson in The Essential Guide to Possession, Depossession, and Divine Relationships says that in traditional cultures, people recognize when someone goes into possessory trance. They understand the spirits that are coming through, and how to deal safely with both the medium and the Power. Most first world people who encounter the phenomenon have no context for such experiences.
Like a sexual encounter, a possessory experience is intimate and powerful, and it can have an equally intense impact. Just as sex is more rewarding in the context of a mature relationship, deity possession is most sustainable and productive when approached with the same care people would take in developing any other intimate connection. Actual possession, like coitus, is exciting; but in the long run, what satisfies the god-hunger is the ongoing relationship with the Power. Unlike a possessory ritual, this personal relationship is not dependent on the support of a community. Paxson believes that humans are wired to enjoy sex because it encourages readers to reproduce. The fact that humans find pleasure in ecstatic religious experience suggests that such states also have a purpose.
The Essential Guide to Possession, Depossession, and Divine Relationships will not make readers instant shamans, mystics, or trance mediums. For those who seek to get closer to their gods, it offers ways to satisfy that longing. For those who feel compelled to go further, it provides guidelines for healthy spiritual relationships and techniques for opening up to possession or closing it down.
Possessory trance traditionally takes place in a group setting. This public dimension is one of the major points of difference between possession as a spiritual practice and as an identity disorder. Many writers insist that it should only be studied within the context of a specific tradition. Paxson says she has several reasons for taking a cross-cultural approach. First, not everyone who is attracted to possession (or has spontaneously experienced it) has access to a traditional teacher or wants to change their faith. Second, by comparing practices from a variety of cultures readers can get an idea of which elements and methods are fundamental and which are culture specific.
If possessory work is to move beyond the faiths with unbroken traditions, both the community and the mediums need training. Once core elements are identified, they can be incorporated into new traditions. Possessory work is, above all, a practice rooted in relationships – the relationship between the medium and the Power, and the relationship between the Power and the people. If readers are already active in a group that is interested in possessory work, they can use The Essential Guide to Possession, Depossession, and Divine Relationships as a class text, discussing the concepts and the results of the exercises. If readers do not have a group but do have connections to a larger religious community, they can spread the word and try to put together a team, perhaps drawn from several complementary traditions. So that everyone starts with the same skill set, they can consider beginning by working through Trance-Portation. Even if they already have these skills, reviewing them will serve as spiritual conditioning. At the very least, readers should find a friend who can act as their spiritual reality-checker.
A practical book of particular interest to witches and pagans, each chapter of The Essential Guide to Possession, Depossession, and Divine Relationships includes exercises that will assist readers in their personal experiences with possession. The exercises will help the ‘god-hungry’ who yearn for a more complete and personal relationship with Spirit, whether or not they engage in possessory trance. The book is also for the ‘god-bothered’ who would like to avoid or control possession, and the ‘god wranglers’ who are called to manage it in their communities in a productive way.
Religion & Spirituality / Occult / Astrology
The Magic of Electional Astrology by J. Lee Lehman, Ph.D. (Schiffer Publishing, Ltd.)
In the sky, an infinitude of hope, a canvas of glory all possibilities mine. – Neroli Lambent
Electional Astrology addresses the age-old challenge of creating charts for inceptions, such as the start of an activity or an entity, like a corporation. Electional is a popular request among astrology clients who ask for dates and times to start a business, sell a property or car, start a job, a marriage, or an educational program. In The Magic of Electional Astrology, J. Lee Lehman presents the traditional astrological methods for these and many types of events, updated to modern life. Readers find out how to use the ancient rules for warfare to pick a time for a divorce, a strike, or a lockout. They explore events as diverse as running in a marathon, picking a time to execute a medical power of attorney, or filing one's taxes. The Magic of Electional Astrology presents a full history, as well as over 113 completed examples detailing how electional astrology charts work. These methods do not require prior knowledge of classical astrology, although it would be helpful.
Lehman is a professor of astrological studies with degrees in ecosystems analysis and botany. She received both the Marc Edmund Jones Award in 1995 and the Regulus Award of Education in 2008 for her contributions in astrology.
Electional astrology is one of the most difficult types of astrology, not the least reason being that results are not guaranteed. Electional manifests what other methodology styles often repeat, but seldom experience: the rule that the nativity itself creates limitations to the possibilities of the Native (that is, the individual). This idea, reiterated over centuries and cultures, seems anathema to the modern mind, or at least the modern mind of individuals fortunate to have been born into the more comfortable socioeconomic classes during expansionary times.
It was a difficult lesson for astrologers to learn that rule-based systems were not intrinsically bad. But rules don't seem necessary when one's experience of life is that most things work. It is in the down times, when it's hard to escape the conclusion that most things aren't working, that suddenly rules become more obviously necessary. And this is the world that readers now find themselves in, since 2008, when Pluto went into Capricorn.
But fundamental resource limitations, combined with the continued population growth of humans, will put unprecedented strains on economies and living standards over the next forty years. With this global picture going on as the matrix of readers’ physical lives, we would be foolish to assume that they can move successfully through their financial and logistical concerns without planning – and without quite a few bumps along the way.
It is within this environment that Lehman says she began to compile her electional notes and teaching into the format for The Magic of Electional Astrology. Being an electional astrologer through the last twenty plus years has been rather like crying in the wilderness – among other astrologers. But throughout this period, there have been plenty of clients who have looked for the service.
There has been an odd reticence about doing electional. Electional at times looks like playing God – or at least angling for an advantage. But simply put, electional is the process of aligning one's intentions with the flow of the cosmos at a particular moment in time. If one's intention is to have a good marriage, then one marries at a time that is propitious for that goal. If one wishes to have a good surgical outcome, one has the operation at an appropriate time for surgical success. If one wants to sell a house, one signs the paperwork at a time when this goal is easy.
But electional is difficult, a failed election is readily apparent for all to see, and even if a good job is done, the results are not a foregone conclusion. An appropriate election alone is not a guarantee of success, because it does not speak to whether the Native is capable of this result in this period of time. But if success is not guaranteed, why do it at all? The answer is because one at least may prevent a larger failure.
There are appropriate times to do rituals, and the performance of ritual is more efficacious when synchronized in harmony with the planets, not at either a random time or when the planetary energy does not support the ritual. Embedded in this view is the idea that the stars point to appropriate action at particular times. Every moment is not the appropriate time to sow, or to reap, or to buy a stock, or to sell a house, or to get married, or to open a business.
A comprehensive and groundbreaking volume, The Magic of Electional Astrology teaches the traditional method within a practical framework to achieve the goal of alignment.
Designing Research Questionnaires for Business and Management Students by Yuksel Ekinci, with series editors Bill Lee, Mark NK Saunders & VK Narayanan (Mastering Business Research Methods Series: Sage Publications Ltd)